Exposure to Cell Phone Radiations Produces Biochemical Changes in Worker Honey Bees

Exposure to Cell Phone Radiations Produces Biochemical Changes in Worker Honey Bees

Logo of toxintl

Home Current issue Instructions Submit article

Exposure to cell phone radiations produces biochemical changes in worker honey bees

Abstract

The present study was carried out to find the effect of cell phone radiations on various biomolecules in the adult workers of Apis mellifera L. The results of the treated adults were analyzed and compared with the control. Radiation from the cell phone influences honey bees’ behavior and physiology. There was reduced motor activity of the worker bees on the comb initially, followed by en masse migration and movement toward “talk mode” cell phone. The initial quiet period was characterized by rise in concentration of biomolecules including proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, perhaps due to stimulation of body mechanism to fight the stressful condition created by the radiations. At later stages of exposure, there was a slight decline in the concentration of biomolecules probably because the body had adapted to the stimulus.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, biomolecules, cell phone radiations, hemolymph

INTRODUCTION

Cell phone usage is a major public health concern because of potential risk of chronic exposure to low level of radiofrequency and microwave radiation that pulse off the phone antennae in close proximity to the head.[] These concerns have induced a large body of research, both epidemiological and experimental, in humans and animals. Honeybees are reliable indicators of environmental status and possess several important ecological, ethological, and morphological characteristics. They are the best experimental animals to study the effect of electromagnetic waves because they possess in their abdomen magnetite granules which help the bees in their orientation flight. Moreover, the integument of bees has semiconductor functions. It is in the light of these characteristics of honey bees that the present investigation was planned to study the metabolic changes with respect to proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids in hemolymph of worker honeybee of Apis mellifera L. exposed to cell phone radiation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area

The samples of A. mellifera adult worker bees were drawn from the colonies maintained by Department of Zoology, Punjab University, Chandigarh.

Experimental design

A specially designed wooden box called the observation hive was used for the experiment. Front and back of the box were made up of glass while the two sides had wire gauze to ensure proper ventilation. Two such boxes, one experimental and the other control, were taken for the present study. The phones used were of the same make and model and had the same network. Phones were kept in listen-talk mode for 40 min using a tape recorder. Ten honeybees were collected from the exposed frame at intervals of 10, 20 and 40 min. Ten honeybees were collected from the control at the same time intervals.

Sample preparation

Hemolymph of the worker bees was extracted with the help of the micropipette inserted into the inter-segmental region of the bee’s abdomen. Equal volume of hemolymph from all bees was dissolved in 1 ml of normal saline.

Biochemical estimation

Estimation of total carbohydrates

The quantitative estimation of total carbohydrates in the test and control samples of A. mellifera was carried out by following the method of Sawhney and Singh.[]

Estimation of glycogen

Seifter’s method[] was followed for the estimation of glycogen in treated and non-treated hemolymph of A. mellifera.

Glucose estimation

For the estimation of glucose in the hemolymph of A. mellifera, the method of Somogyi and Nelson[] was employed.

Estimation of total lipids

The quantitative estimation of total lipids in the treated and non-treated hemolymph extract of A. mellifera was carried out by following the procedure of Fringes and Dunn.[]

Cholesterol estimation

Method of Zlatki’s et al.[] was employed for the estimation of cholesterol in treated and non-treated sample.

Estimation of protein

The total quantity of protein in the test and control sample of A. mellifera was determined by following the standard procedure of Lowry.[]

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Total carbohydrates

Control

In the non-treated or control sample, the concentration of total carbohydrates in the hemolymph was found to be 1.29±0.02 mg/ml.

Test

In the hemolymph of treated bees, the concentration was 1.5±0.04 mg/ml in 10 min, 1.73±0.01 mg/ml in 20 min and 1.61±0.02 mg/ml in 40 min exposure samples.

Glycogen

In the treated sample, the glycogen content (mg/ml) was found to be 0.019 0.001 as compared to 0.047 0.001, 0.076±0.001 and 0.028±0.002 in 10, 20 and 40 min exposure samples, respectively.

Glucose

The glucose content (mg/ml) in control sample was 0.218±0.0005, while in the various treated samples the concentration was 0.231±0.002, 0.277±0.001 and 0.246±0.002 in 10, 20 and 40 min exposure samples, respectively.

Total lipids

The concentration of total lipids (mg/ml) in the hemolymph of control worker bee was found to be 2.06±0.02. For the treated sample, the concentration of total lipids was 3.03±0.02, 4.50±0.035 and 3.10±0.02 in 10, 20 and 40 min exposure samples, respectively.

Cholesterol

The cholesterol concentration (mg/ml) in the non-treated sample was 0.230 0.001. In the treated sample, the concentration was 1.381±0.002, 2.565±0.002 and 1.578±0.002 in 10, 20 and 40 min exposure samples, respectively.

Total protein content

In the hemolymph of control sample, the protein concentration (mg/ml) was 0.475±0.002. In the treated sample, the protein concentration was 0.525±0.003, 0.825±0.0001 and 0.650±0.0003 in 10, 20 and 40 min exposed samples, respectively.

Very little work has been done on biochemical, metabolic and physiological influences of cell phone radiations pertaining to health risk in man.[] Therefore, the present investigations on the influence of cell phone radiations on some biochemical and physiological aspects of honeybee biology were undertaken. That the behavior of honeybee is altered to some extent by high or low energy fields or electromagnetic radiations has been known for quite some time.[]

During the present investigation, it was observed that there was an increase in concentration of total carbohydrates in the bees exposed to cell phone radiation for 10 min as compared to unexposed or control bees. Increasing the exposure time to 20 min resulted in further increase in the concentration, while an exposure of 40 min had a reverse effect and there was a decline in carbohydrate concentration, though it was still higher as compared to control. Hemolymph glycogen and glucose content also showed the same trend, i.e., there was increase in content up to 20 min exposure after which there was a slight decline in the concentration which remained more than the control. Sharma[] had also reported increase in glycogen and glucose levels in the exposed pupa of A. mellifera.

Lipids are the major energy reserves of insects. Certain lipid classes are structure components of membranes while others are raw materials for a variety of hormones and pheromones. Estimation of total lipids and cholesterol during the present study showed that the trend was similar to that of carbohydrates. After an initial increase in concentration at the 10 and 20 min exposure period, a decline was observed in the concentration of total lipids and cholesterol at 40 min exposure.

It was interesting to note that during the present study as the exposure time increased, it appeared that the bees having assessed the source of the disturbance decided to move and a large scale movement of the workers toward the talk-mode (not toward the listening mobile) was observed. Also, the bees became slightly aggressive and started beating their wings in agitation. This mobility of the bees could be responsible for increase utilization of energy sources and consequent decrease in concentration of carbohydrates and lipids in the 40 min exposed sample.

Source: US National Library Of Medicine

Sometimes you just have to ask yourself: WHAT ARE THE CHANCES OF THAT ? – #watcot

Support WATCOT.org

  • Bitcoin
  • Ethereum
  • Xrp
  • Bitcoin cash
  • Bitcoin sv
  • Litecoin
  • Tether
  • Eos
  • Binance coin
  • Tezos
  • Cardano
  • Dash
  • Nem
  • Monero
  • Stellar
  • Ethereum classic
  • Lisk
  • Tron
  • Neo
  • Vechain
  • Qtum
  • Omisego
  • Icon
  • Nano
  • Zcash
  • Ontology
Scan to Donate Bitcoin to bc1qgkhtgufrz6wsczamwkl0dwk0fa8uq45m2zr75l

Donate Bitcoin to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Bitcoin

Scan to Donate Ethereum to 0x203E3D9Ad868699316bEac2D0F31F4236c002a3E

Donate Ethereum to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Ethereum

Scan to Donate Xrp to rH79rmr7T66wm1ka4o9xDG4m1Nzi1QR8Y

Donate Xrp to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Xrp

Scan to Donate Bitcoin cash to qr8lggv04m2f4ehfa2dr8fwcymuhnp6mvc7npefp2s

Donate Bitcoin cash to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Bitcoin cash

Scan to Donate Bitcoin sv to 12aRp4BSe1uX9DjKtUEjXAQGJZzSzEsfjP

Donate Bitcoin sv to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Bitcoin sv

Scan to Donate Litecoin to LgTyhWBmcMbzsJ9jUBsVNdTwiApyPRcbaV

Donate Litecoin to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Litecoin

Scan to Donate Tether to 0x203E3D9Ad868699316bEac2D0F31F4236c002a3E

Donate Tether to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Tether

Scan to Donate Eos to rH79rmr7T66wm1ka4o9xDG4m1Nzi1QR8Y

Donate Eos to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Eos

Tag/Note:- XRP Adress
Scan to Donate Binance coin to bnb1rl86hrnk99jpnac8zas6lcy9sakh40q6037kn6

Donate Binance coin to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Binance coin

Scan to Donate Tezos to tz1drWpwUFnXMCNk2fP41Tj2ejo5dpcbepno

Donate Tezos to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Tezos

Scan to Donate Cardano to Ae2tdPwUPEZ6JE1RCBBCsKUHXoxaSzciykxBxn7M7mkEaC9k9A1Wjz4Mmiu

Donate Cardano to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Cardano

Scan to Donate Dash to XnPa4jjZyj9oWLm2kpVq1EnAFzcEDJEmae

Donate Dash to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Dash

Scan to Donate Nem to NDHYY5NBOAITXNWGJOEHHFLDNJROEF33Q4DGSMX6

Donate Nem to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Nem

Scan to Donate Monero to 48tCYZezTBMSY4JhjqtpkjMnGK5YZmuFdHgFLLayn33H1TJ9MkbFN9gSxxpxN9okn15HHUcCpeAqE3e319fxYjipVghBr9R

Donate Monero to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Monero

Scan to Donate Stellar to GA3PAAWGWN6NDEXI7TPEJMXXHBCGA77LDMBWSIVBVENFAYT2KF6BJCB5

Donate Stellar to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Stellar

Scan to Donate Ethereum classic to 0x08BB2f0c85dB4cD298b397be87b65b0300230C10

Donate Ethereum classic to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Ethereum classic

Scan to Donate Lisk to 4554698783447062922L

Donate Lisk to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Lisk

Scan to Donate Tron to TEfQHuDBQs4uebJFGQxVE861KzMk4Go1nV

Donate Tron to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Tron

Scan to Donate Neo to AS2XK5bXq8vM2uXUMvjFm5THP7SnmG7bLq

Donate Neo to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Neo

Scan to Donate Vechain to 0x4c560ADb0dd96eF16ACC9b9974d4114472BE772a

Donate Vechain to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Vechain

Scan to Donate Qtum to Qj7tBabQdbUbdKyoeytnehe9dddbzyRjbb

Donate Qtum to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Qtum

Scan to Donate Omisego to 0x203E3D9Ad868699316bEac2D0F31F4236c002a3E

Donate Omisego to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Omisego

Scan to Donate Icon to hxc90d401693c7244df9fc5f9b425b11dcbd17b385

Donate Icon to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Icon

Scan to Donate Nano to nano_1kmmfcukewa53s66eeeh5reyfu9zyxrggchs1pug6grdk4jjsjp7h5m7mskc

Donate Nano to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Nano

Scan to Donate Zcash to t1dsg9VUBKHB8yKoNhufFWnjafiqEt6GxgX

Donate Zcash to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Zcash

Scan to Donate Ontology to AdkmjPehgcqDHDnjTtiwsgH1FkimViyfPS

Donate Ontology to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Ontology

Categories

Somtimes you just have to ask youself.

WHAT ARE THE CHANCES OF THAT? - #watcot

All donations go to supporting the team and infrastructure that is needed in order to bring you the truth, all content has been verified. We will continue to bring you the evidence to allow you to make up your own minds and ask yourself. 

What are the chances of that? #WATCOT

  • Bitcoin
  • Ethereum
  • Xrp
  • Bitcoin cash
  • Bitcoin sv
  • Litecoin
  • Tether
  • Eos
  • Binance coin
  • Tezos
  • Cardano
  • Dash
  • Nem
  • Monero
  • Stellar
  • Ethereum classic
  • Lisk
  • Tron
  • Neo
  • Vechain
  • Qtum
  • Omisego
  • Icon
  • Nano
  • Zcash
  • Ontology
Scan to Donate Bitcoin to bc1qgkhtgufrz6wsczamwkl0dwk0fa8uq45m2zr75l

Donate Bitcoin to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Bitcoin

Scan to Donate Ethereum to 0x203E3D9Ad868699316bEac2D0F31F4236c002a3E

Donate Ethereum to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Ethereum

Scan to Donate Xrp to rH79rmr7T66wm1ka4o9xDG4m1Nzi1QR8Y

Donate Xrp to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Xrp

Scan to Donate Bitcoin cash to qr8lggv04m2f4ehfa2dr8fwcymuhnp6mvc7npefp2s

Donate Bitcoin cash to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Bitcoin cash

Scan to Donate Bitcoin sv to 12aRp4BSe1uX9DjKtUEjXAQGJZzSzEsfjP

Donate Bitcoin sv to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Bitcoin sv

Scan to Donate Litecoin to LgTyhWBmcMbzsJ9jUBsVNdTwiApyPRcbaV

Donate Litecoin to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Litecoin

Scan to Donate Tether to 0x203E3D9Ad868699316bEac2D0F31F4236c002a3E

Donate Tether to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Tether

Scan to Donate Eos to rH79rmr7T66wm1ka4o9xDG4m1Nzi1QR8Y

Donate Eos to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Eos

Tag/Note:- XRP Adress
Scan to Donate Binance coin to bnb1rl86hrnk99jpnac8zas6lcy9sakh40q6037kn6

Donate Binance coin to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Binance coin

Scan to Donate Tezos to tz1drWpwUFnXMCNk2fP41Tj2ejo5dpcbepno

Donate Tezos to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Tezos

Scan to Donate Cardano to Ae2tdPwUPEZ6JE1RCBBCsKUHXoxaSzciykxBxn7M7mkEaC9k9A1Wjz4Mmiu

Donate Cardano to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Cardano

Scan to Donate Dash to XnPa4jjZyj9oWLm2kpVq1EnAFzcEDJEmae

Donate Dash to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Dash

Scan to Donate Nem to NDHYY5NBOAITXNWGJOEHHFLDNJROEF33Q4DGSMX6

Donate Nem to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Nem

Scan to Donate Monero to 48tCYZezTBMSY4JhjqtpkjMnGK5YZmuFdHgFLLayn33H1TJ9MkbFN9gSxxpxN9okn15HHUcCpeAqE3e319fxYjipVghBr9R

Donate Monero to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Monero

Scan to Donate Stellar to GA3PAAWGWN6NDEXI7TPEJMXXHBCGA77LDMBWSIVBVENFAYT2KF6BJCB5

Donate Stellar to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Stellar

Scan to Donate Ethereum classic to 0x08BB2f0c85dB4cD298b397be87b65b0300230C10

Donate Ethereum classic to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Ethereum classic

Scan to Donate Lisk to 4554698783447062922L

Donate Lisk to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Lisk

Scan to Donate Tron to TEfQHuDBQs4uebJFGQxVE861KzMk4Go1nV

Donate Tron to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Tron

Scan to Donate Neo to AS2XK5bXq8vM2uXUMvjFm5THP7SnmG7bLq

Donate Neo to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Neo

Scan to Donate Vechain to 0x4c560ADb0dd96eF16ACC9b9974d4114472BE772a

Donate Vechain to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Vechain

Scan to Donate Qtum to Qj7tBabQdbUbdKyoeytnehe9dddbzyRjbb

Donate Qtum to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Qtum

Scan to Donate Omisego to 0x203E3D9Ad868699316bEac2D0F31F4236c002a3E

Donate Omisego to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Omisego

Scan to Donate Icon to hxc90d401693c7244df9fc5f9b425b11dcbd17b385

Donate Icon to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Icon

Scan to Donate Nano to nano_1kmmfcukewa53s66eeeh5reyfu9zyxrggchs1pug6grdk4jjsjp7h5m7mskc

Donate Nano to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Nano

Scan to Donate Zcash to t1dsg9VUBKHB8yKoNhufFWnjafiqEt6GxgX

Donate Zcash to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Zcash

Scan to Donate Ontology to AdkmjPehgcqDHDnjTtiwsgH1FkimViyfPS

Donate Ontology to this address

Scan the QR code or copy the address below into your wallet to send some Ontology